4.13 DOORS

4.13.1    General
Doors required to be accessible by 4.1 shall comply with the requirements of 4.13.

4.13.2    Revolving Doors And Turnstiles
Revolving doors or turnstiles shall not be the only means of passage at an accessible entrance or along an accessible route. An accessible gate or door shall be provided adjacent to the turnstile or revolving door and shall be so designed as to facilitate the same use pattern.

Gates, including ticket gates, shall meet all applicable specifications of 4.13.

   Double-Leaf Doorways
If doorways have two independently operated door leaves, then at least one leaf shall meet the specifications in 4.13.5 (width) and 4.13.6 (maneuvering clearances at doors). That leaf shall be an active leaf.

4.13.5    Clear Width
Doorways shall have a minimum clear opening of 32 in (815 mm) with the door open 90 degrees, measured between the face of the door and the opposite stop (see Fig. 24). Openings more than 24 in (610 mm) in depth shall comply with 4.2.1 and 4.3.3 (see Fig. 24).

EXCEPTION: Doors not requiring full user passage, such as shallow closets, may have the clear opening reduced to 20 in (510 mm) minimum.

4.13.6   Maneuvering Clearances At Doors
Minimum maneuvering clearances at doors that are not automatic or power-assisted shall be as shown in Fig. 25(a) & Fig. 25(b) & Fig. 25(c). The floor or ground area within the required clearances shall be level and clear.

EXCEPTION: Entry doors to acute care hospital bedrooms for in-patients shall be exempted from the requirement for space at the latch side of the door (see dimension "x" in Fig. 25) if the door is at least 44 in (1120 mm) wide.

   Two Doors In Series
The minimum space between two hinged or pivoted doors in series shall be 48 in (1220 mm) plus the width of any door swinging into the space. Doors in series shall swing either in the same direction or away from the space between the doors (see Fig. 26).

    Thresholds At Doorways
Thresholds at doorways shall not exceed 3/4 in (19 mm) in height for exterior sliding doors or 1/2 in (13 mm) for other types of doors. Raised thresholds and floor level changes at accessible doorways shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1: 2 (see 4.5.2)

Note: Thresholds and surface height changes in doorways are particularly inconvenient for wheelchair users who also have low stamina or restrictions in arm movement because complex maneuvering is required to get over the level change while operating the door.

4.13.9     Door Hardware
Handles, pulls, latches, locks, and other operating devices on accessible doors shall have a shape that is easy to grasp with one hand and does not require tight grasping, tight pinching, or twisting of the wrist to operate. Lever-operated mechanisms, push-type mechanisms, and U-shaped handles are acceptable designs. When sliding doors are fully open, operating hardware shall be exposed and usable from both sides. Hardware required for accessible door passage shall be mounted no higher than 48 in (1220 mm) above finished floor.

Note: Some disabled persons must push against a door with their chair or walker to open it. Applied kickplates on doors with closers can reduce required maintenance by withstanding abuse from wheelchairs and canes. To be effective, they should cover the door width, less approximately 2 in (51 mm), up to a height of 16 in (405 mm) from its bottom edge and be centered across the width of the door.

4.13.10    Door Closers
If a door has a closer, then the sweep period of the closer shall be adjusted so that from an open position of 70 degrees, the door will take at least 3 seconds to move to a point 3 in (75 mm) from the latch, measured to the leading edge of the door.

Note: Closers with delayed action features give a person more time to maneuver through doorways. They are particularly useful on frequently used interior doors such as entrances to toilet rooms.

    Door Opening Force
The maximum force for pushing or pulling open a door shall be as follows:

  • 4.13.11(1) Fire doors shall have the minimum opening force allowable by the appropriate administrative authority.
  • 4.13.11(2) Other Doors
  • Exterior hinged doors: (Reserved).
  • 4.13.11(2)(b) Interior hinged doors: 5 lbf (22.2N)
  • 4.13.11(2)(c) Sliding or folding doors: 5 lbf (22.2N)

    These forces do not apply to the force required to retract latch bolts or disengage other devices that may hold the door in a closed position.

    Note: Although most people with disabilities can exert at least 5 lbf (22.2N), both pushing and pulling from a stationary position, a few people with severe disabilities cannot exert 3 lbf (13.13N). Although some people cannot manage the allowable forces in this guideline and many others have difficulty, door closers must have certain minimum closing forces to close doors satisfactorily. Forces for pushing or pulling doors open are measured with a push-pull scale under the following conditions:

    A4.13.11(1) Hinged Doors:
    Force applied perpendicular to the door at the door opener or 30 in (760 mm) from the hinged side, whichever is farther from the hinge.

    A4.13.11(2) Sliding Or Folding Doors:
    Force applied parallel to the door at the door pull or latch.

    A4.13.11(3) Application Of Force:

    Apply force gradually so that the applied force does not exceed the resistance of the door. In high-rise buildings, air-pressure differentials may require a modification of this specification in order to meet the functional intent.

4.13.12   Automatic Doors And Power-Assisted Doors
If an automatic door is used, then it shall comply with ANSI/BHMA A156.10-1985. Slowly opening, low-powered, automatic doors shall comply with ANSI A156.19-1984. Such doors shall not open to back check faster than 3 seconds and shall require no more than 15 lbf (66.6N) to stop door movement. If a power-assisted door is used, its door-opening force shall comply with 4.13.11 and its closing shall conform to the requirements in ANSI A156.19-1984.

Note: Sliding automatic doors do not need guard rails and are more convenient for wheelchair users and visually impaired people to use. If slowly opening automatic doors can be reactivated before their closing cycle is completed, they will be more convenient in busy doorways.